Onions are one of the most healthy foods in our human diet; they are an immune system booster. Growing your own onions is simple and they act as a natural pesticide in your garden making for a more successful garden. You can seed onions and allow them to grow into onion sets; but, this takes time. Onion sets should be planted in early Spring, depending on your planting zone, so if you plan on starting from seed you need to take that into account. Onion sets can be purchased just about anywhere that sells seed. I prefer to purchase organic and non GMO onion sets. This year I have started some onion seed in the greenhouse for our Fall garden. We have a long enough warm season in Kentucky to be able to have two cool weather gardens.
Preparing the Soil
Your soil needs to be loose enough to allow your onions to expand in the soil until they get rooted enough to pull the dirt out from around them. We have two large gardens so we plough with the tractor. Your dirt needs to be turned over the first time before the last freeze and again just before you plant. We grow our onions in rows. When making your rows you need to pull the dirt up and create a furrow to set the onions. Growing onions in an onion bed is also a very efficient method as you can keep the soil loose and water more efficiently. You can also grow onions in planters.
Setting and Covering
If you are planting for whole onions you will need to space your onions three inches apart; you can space them two inches apart if you want green onions only. Be sure to plant the root side down and set them firmly in the ground. Some people do not cover their onion sets at all; however, I have found that mine don’t stay where I put them unless I cover them some. When you cover the onions just pull up a little dirt leaving the very top of the onion exposed.
When your onions begin to grow green tops and start to show bulb growth you can start to pull some of the dirt away from them so the bulb can grow. Be cautious about pulling too much dirt and disturbing the roots. I use a fork set aside for garden because it is a more precise tool. From this point in the growth process all you can do is wait, weed, and water. I usually put mulch around our onions to keep the soil moist and the weeds down. If your soil gets too hard packed be sure to hand till it or the bulb will not grow.